THE BIOLOGY OF CALPROTECTIN
Calprotectin is a 36 kDa protein which is universally found in the body. The "protein" belongs to the S 100 protein family with two 14 kDa (MRP14, S100 A9) and one 8 kDa (MRP8, S100 A8) chain of amino acids. The protein is expressed during myeloid differentiation, are abundant in neutrophil granulocytes and monocytes. Myeloid cells, which are developed in the bone marrow, migrates in large amounts into the blood and further into tissues in many diseases and conditions, like cystic fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis and many inflammations and malignant diseases.
Calprotectin is a very abundant neutrophil protein with many "characteristics"
It constitutes more than 60% of total proteins in the cytosol of neutrophil granulocytes, each neutrophil contains 25 picograms of calprotectin compared to about 30 picograms haemoglobin per erythrocyte.
Calprotectin is released from activated leukocytes leading to concentrations in plasma, serum, spinal fluid, synovial fluid, urine, saliva or stools is increased during bacterial infections or inflammation in relevant organs.
Calprotectin is antimicrobial and has induced apoptosis in all cell types (human, animal, normal, malignant) tested. These effects can be reversed by addition of zinc. By binding zinc calprotectin can inhibit many important metalloproteinases.
Lack of calprotectin is not compatible with life.
CLINICAL ASPECTS OF CALPROTECTIN:
The Calprotectin syndrome presents with a clinical picture suggestive of zinc deficiency: children/young adults show growth retardation, bone marrow depression, immune deficiency, hepatosplenomegaly, arthritis and vasculitis; the concentration of calprotectin in their plasma is 2000 to 12000 times the normal. These huge amounts of calprotectin bind so much zinc that a functional zinc deficiency is created.
Calprotectin as a disease marker:
• Use CalproSampler containing practical toilet papers and gloves for stool collection and prefilled EasyExtract for extraction of calprotectin.
• Put the extraction tube into a Dynex automate or conduct the quantitation procedure manually. September 19, 2012
PhiCal™ Fecal Calprotectin Immunoassay FDA APPROVED! October 1, 2012